Type 2 diabetes and its symptoms
Type 2 diabetes mostly affects adults, although it can affect children, especially those who suffer from obesity, but the largest portion of diabetics with type 2 diabetes are adults.
There are three main types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes, Type 2 diabetes, and gestational diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes occurs for two main reasons: the first one is a result of the pancreas' inability to secrete the amount of insulin that the body needs, and the second one is the inability of the body's cells to receive the blood glucose to produce energy.
Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas, an organ located in the abdomen below the stomach, but what stimulates the secretion of this hormone?
When you eat food, especially foods rich in sugars and carbohydrates, the blood sugar rises, then the blood loaded with sugar, it goes through the normal circulation to the pancreas, stimulating it to secrete insulin, which in turn stimulates the cells of the body to receive the sugar in the blood, the cells receive the sugar in the blood and use it to produce energy.
If a defect occurs in the pancreas’ secretion of insulin or the cells’ reception of sugar, a person will develop type 2 diabetes. The reason behind this type of diabetes is still unknown, but at the most, the largest percentage of infection is as a result of excess weight and excessive eating of unhealthy food.
Symptoms of the second type of diabetes:
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease and symptoms take a long time to appear, and sometimes a person lives with it for a period of time and does not know that he is infected, and one of the most important symptoms:
- Constant thirst.
- More frequent urination than normal.
- Feeling constantly hungry, losing weight without following a specific diet.
- Feeling tired.
- Blurred vision.
- Difficulty healing wounds.
- Weak immunity, and persistent disease.
- Feeling of pain or tingling in the hands and feet.
- The appearance of melasma in different areas of the body, especially in the neck and armpits.
Why do type 2 diabetics feel hungry and tired?
The feeling of constant hunger, especially the binge eating of sugars, as well as the feeling of constant fatigue, is one of the most important symptoms of type 2 diabetes, and the reason for this is that glucose that is formed after eating does not enter the cells to produce energy, but rather remains present in the blood, which is called insulin resistance, Thus, the person feels tired and weak because of the cells’ inability to produce the necessary energy and the constant feeling of hunger and thirst because the cells did not benefit from the food that was eaten.
Who is most likely to have type 2 of diabetes?
People who are overweight and obese, an increase in body fat, especially in the abdominal area, puts you in the circle of people most at risk of developing diabetes, type 2, some studies indicate an increase in waist size of 101.6 cm in men and 88.9 cm in women increases the risk of exposure person to injury ratios indicate that people who do less physical activity are more likely to develop diabetes. Having a family history of disease increases your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Age is an important risk factor; Because as we mentioned that the incidence in adults is greater, especially for those over the age of 45, people who suffer from high cholesterol are more likely than others to develop diabetes. The woman who is diagnosed as a diabetic during pregnancy is more at risk of developing type 2 diabetes later. Having polycystic ovaries increases the risk and shows certain symptoms that indicate that you have polycystic ovaries, such as: irregular menstruation, excessive hair growth in the body, and obesity, the emergence of melasma in certain places in the body, especially the neck, one of the most important symptoms of insulin resistance.
What are the complications of type 2 diabetes?
Diabetes is a serious disease, and its danger increases due to the seriousness of the complications it causes:
- Cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerosis.
- Eye problems such as glaucoma and damage to the blood vessels that feed the retina.
- The kidneys are greatly affected in the case of type 2 diabetes, and this may cause kidney failure and dialysis.
- Nerve damage, especially the nerves connecting the extremities; This causes tingling and burning in the extremities and loss of feeling in the fingers and toes.
- A person with diabetes is more likely to get bacterial and fungal skin infections.
- Difficulty healing wounds is a major complication of type 2 diabetes.
- Insomnia and difficulty sleeping, as well as dementia and Alzheimer's disease are among the most serious complications of diabetes.
- Hearing problems.
- Diabetic coma.
How to prevent type 2 diabetes?
Because type 2 diabetes occurs mostly in adults, this makes it a preventable disease, but how?
By following a healthy diet that relies on reducing the proportion of fats, calories and sugars, focusing on fibers found in vegetables and fruits, and choosing flour and bread made from whole grains.
Increase physical activity, such as walking, running or swimming.
Getting rid of excess weight is one of the most important prevention methods, as studies have shown that it is necessary to lose 7-10% of your weight if you suffer from prediabetes.
If you have a family history or you have prediabetes, it is imperative that you take these preventive measures immediately.
How do you know you have prediabetes?
If the fasting blood sugar test rate ranges between 100-125 mg/dL, and the normal blood sugar test rate ranges between 140-199 mg/dL.
Diagnosis of diabetes:
Diagnosing diabetes depends on measuring blood sugar, whether by taking a blood sample and analyzing it in various laboratories or using home glucose meters. A person has diabetes in the following cases:
- If the fasting blood glucose level is higher than 126 mg/dl.
- If the normal blood glucose level is more than 200 mg/dl.
- If the random blood glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dl With symptoms such as thirst or frequent urination.
Type 2 diabetes treatment:
If you have been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you must know that diabetes is a chronic disease and that treatment depends on following a healthy lifestyle and that following this method permanently can cure type 2 permanently, and this method depends on..!
- Eating a healthy diet suitable for type 2 diabetes patients.
- Exercising the appropriate physical activity for your condition.
- Losing excess weight.
- The doctor may prescribe some types of medication or insulin for people with diabetes.
- Measuring your blood sugar on a daily basis and writing down the things that cause your blood sugar to rise to avoid later.
- Home remedies and lifestyle for people with type 2 diabetes.
- The ongoing search for healthy lifestyles followed by people with the second type of diabetes.
- Do periodic examinations to avoid complications of type 2 diabetes, especially heart, eye and kidney tests.
- Avoid exposure to any type of infection, as weak immunity is a major problem of diabetes.
- Dental care through constant washing, flossing, and regular visit to the dentist; This is to avoid any infection of the gums.
- Avoid infection of any kind of wounds due to the difficulty of healing wounds suffered by people with type 2 diabetes.
- Care for the feet and dry them well to avoid painful ulcers that are difficult to treat.
- Measure blood pressure continuously and take care to maintain the pressure in the normal range for it.
- Follow up on the level of cholesterol in the blood.
- Avoid foods that increase smoking cessation.
- December 2021