Tuberculosis Disease

Tuberculosis Disease

Tuberculosis

What is tuberculosis?

Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria which affects lungs and may spread to other areas in the body like brain and spinal cord.


Types of tuberculosis:

1- Latent TB.
2- Active TB.


Symptoms of tuberculosis:

1- The latent form of TB has no symptoms.

2- The Active TB symptoms are:

  • Severe cough that lasts for a long time more than 3 weeks.
  • Bloody cough in some cases.
  • Chest pain.
  • Feeling physically exhausted and tired all the time.
  • High temperature and fever.
  • Sweating, especially at night, and chills in the body.
  • Loss of appetite, which causes weight loss.

Transmission of tuberculosis:

1- Tuberculosis can be transmitted by direct contact with an infected person during talking, sneezing and coughing, the small particles when entered the healthy person’s body, he might be infected.

2- Tuberculosis can be transmitted by indirect contact when using patient tools.

3- Smoking shisha.


Risk Factors of TB:

1- Contact for a long period with an infected person at home or in work.

2- Smokers specially shisha smokers.

3- The areas with high rates of TB like: South Africa and russia.

4- Doctors and nurses who are treating TB patients and their families.

5- Veterinary doctors because TB is one of the common diseases between humans and animals.


Diagnosis of tuberculosis:

1- Skin Test.

2- Blood test.


Prevention of TB:

1- Take care while talking, coughing or sneezing if you are an infected person.

2- Wear a face mask if you are infected or have an infected family member at home.

3- Avoid crowding areas if you live or have travelled to an area where TB is common.


Tuberculosis vaccine:

BCG is the tuberculosis vaccine which is given to children in some countries like the United States if one of their patients is infected or has a TB drug resistance.


Treatment of tuberculosis:

Some antibiotics are used for the treatment of TB under doctors prescription for several months such as: isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and rifampin.

 

Sources:

https://www.webmd.com/lung/understanding-tuberculosis-basics

https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tuberculosis

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